Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
Page 25
Page 26
Page 27
Page 28
Page 29
Page 30
Page 31
Page 32
Page 33
Page 34
Page 35
Page 36
kregel.comacademic 11 BIBLICAL LANGUAGES Introductions to each biblical book briefly discuss the particular Greek text and its key features. The selected readings are commonly referenced in the New Testament or exemplify distinct Septuagint grammar vocabulary and theological emphases. Bibliographies provide suggestions for further study of each biblical book. The Rahlfs-Hanhart Greek text is presented verse-by-verse which is the most commonly used text classrooms. Text notes provide verse- and phrase- level explanations of the Greek vocabulary and syntax as well as important historical referents. Less familiar words are parsed and defined. Additional notes parse difficult verbal forms give alternate ways of reading the text and discuss significant critical issues of the text. Footnotes reference standard Septuagint grammars lexicons and other resources. Vocabulary and syntax unique to the Septuagint is called out. English translations from A New English Translation of the Septuagint enable students to check their reading of the text. 19 GENESIS Compiled by Karen H. Jobes with Kimberly Carlton and Judy Kim Introduction The book of Genesis was among the first biblical books ever to be trans- lated from Hebrew into Greek probably in the third century B.C. in Alexandria Egypt. The translator needed to overcome various problems such as differences in the structures of a Semitic Hebrew and Indo- European Greek language and considerations of the socio-political context in which the translation would be read. Reading Scripture in a Hellenistic culture ruled by pagan kings outside the promised land rather than within the more cohesive socio-religious context of a theocracy could give rise to misunderstandings that might be preventable by how the translation was rendered. The translation choices reflected in Genesis and the other Pentateuchal books became to some extent a standard for the work of later translators on the rest of the Hebrew Scriptures.1 The work of the Greek translators on subsequent translations has had a long reach. Even the titles of English biblical books are transliter- ated from the Greek not the Hebrew. The title of the book of Genesis is a transliteration from the Greek origin rather than the Hebrew Bereshith in the beginning. As a Greek text LXX Genesis bears the marks of a translation. It is a strict quantitative representation of the word order and syntax of the Hebrew text from which it was translated.2 The translator does some- times break that formal equivalence to follow Greek rather than Hebrew 1. See John W. Wevers Notes on the Greek Text of Genesis SBLSCS 35. Atlanta Scholars Press 1993 xxi for more detail on the linguistic differences between the source and target languages. 2. Robert J. V. Hiebert To the Reader of Genesis in A New English Translation of the Septuagint ed. Albert Pietersma and Benjamin G. Wright Oxford Oxford University Press 2007 1. 20 Gen. 11 Discovering the Septuagint LXX idiom and to contextualize the translation for Greek readers. See Hiebert Genesis To the Reader3 for a profile of the Greek translation in relation to the Hebrew. Selected Readings Genesis 1123 Genesis 124214 Genesis 21537 Genesis 3824 Selected Bibliography Hiebert Robert J. V. To the Reader of Genesis. In A New English Translation of the Septuagint. Edited by Albert Pietersma and Benjamin G. Wright 16. New York and Oxford Oxford University Press 2007. Walton John H. Genesis. In vol. 1 of Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary edited by John H. Walton pp. 2159. Grand Rapids Zondervan 2009. Wevers John W. Notes on the Greek Text of Genesis. SBLSCS 35. Atlanta Scholars Press 1993. Genesis 1123 Gen. 11 . Note the absence of a def art as also in Hebrew yet in English we require the def art in the beginning. is a monadic noun i.e. a noun for which in any given context there is only one corresponding referent. Languages handle monadic nouns differently with respect to the presence or absence of the def art. Because this refers to the unique point of origin of heaven and earth it is by defini- tion monadic. Probably an example of merism where two nouns are stated to represent a totality. Here heaven and earth rep- resent everything there is. Gen. 12 . 3. Hiebert Genesis To the Reader 16. 28 Gen. 122 Discovering the Septuagint LXX Gen. 122 . 3sg aor act ind he blessed. Masc sg nom pres act ptc . Pleonastic use of the ptc he blessed . . . saying. 2pl pres mid impv increase. 2pl pres mid impv multiply. 2pl aor act impv fill. 3pl aor pass impv let them multiply. Gen. 123 . Fem sg nom adj fifth. Genesis 1123 nets Gen. 11 In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. 2 Yet the earth was invisible and unformed and darkness was over the abyss and a divine wind was being carried along over the water. 3 And God said Let light come into being. And light came into being. 4 And God saw the light that it was good. And God separated between the light and between the darkness. 5 And God called the light Day and the darkness he called Night. And it came to be evening and it came to be morning day one. 6 And God said Let a firmament come into being in the midst of the water and let it be a separator between water and water. And it be- came so. 7 And God made the firmament and God separated between the water that was under the firmament and between the water that was above the firmament. 8 And God called the firmament Sky. And God saw that it was good. And it came to be evening and it came to be morning a second day. 9 And God said Let the water that is under the sky be gathered into one gathering and let the dry land appear. And it became so. And the water that was under the sky was gathered into their gatherings and the dry land appeared. 10 And God called the dry land Earth and the